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Therefore purchase 160mg super p-force oral jelly visa erectile dysfunction pump as seen on tv, the higher the typical failure 1 purchase super p-force oral jelly 160 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction treatment guidelines,2 • Would exclusive FP services in a special clinic rate (Table 1) , the riskier a method is. From the deter some clients afraid to be identified by maternal mortality perspective, this failure rate is bystanders? Moreover, due to his production of green- house gases and consumption of non-renewable Some women have specific risk factors, such as resources, the typical Scandinavian has an ecologi- thrombophilia. While a pregnancy is still more cal footprint a hundred times larger than, for exam- dangerous for them than using combined hormonal ple, an Ethiopian. For example, many women do not return for IUDs after undergoing abortions although they said they would; or in a FP clinic if a woman is asked to come back later to have an IUD inserted [when the doctor is there or when she has (had) her period or when she has collected the (expensive? Or a postpartum sterilization is agreed on but there are too many emergencies or the delivery is on a Friday and she is asked to come back in 6 weeks, what percentage will not have the sterilization? Sterilization planned with a cesarean section but the doctor forgets, or the consent forms are lost; or pill prescribed but pharmacy in hospital closed or pill too expensive or out of stock; or clinic refers for hormonal EC: raped on Thursday, in police station Friday, seen in hospital Saturday after the pharmacy closed, no emergency stock available, told to come back Monday. FIRs, like typical use failure rates differ enormously per location. Adapted from: Trussel1 and Verkuyl2 contraception (LARC) or sterilization of either urine tests can’t exclude a pregnancy until 14 days partner is a better option. Eligibility for a method after ovulation and it may even take, with a normal (Boxes 1 and 2) becomes especially relevant if there pregnancy, another 4 days before a sensitive test is are options. In other words, for a pregnancy test to be reliably negative you must perform it at least 3 weeks after the last episode of unprotected sex. According to the has (had) her period or for a pregnancy test. She WHO, there is no known harm if contraception is probably visits now because her husband might visit accidentally used in pregnancy excluding IUDs and (unannounced) soon. Denying women like her hysteroscopic tubal occlusion (TO). Pregnancy tests non-barrier methods will result in many unintended are expensive or unobtainable for many. Moreover, pregnancies and no doubt dangerous abortions. If she dies, her children are likely to do trol (CDC) have made a compilation of experts’ very poorly. Conversely, for a woman of the same opinions informed by evidence. Eligibility for spe- age who smokes 15 cigarettes/day, a combined oral cific contraceptives is divided into four categories: contraceptive (COC) is no. A condition for which there is no restriction for would be <0. A condition where the advantages of using the the CDC and Royal College of Obstetricians and method generally outweigh the theoretical or Gynaecologists, UK (more for the US/UK cir- proven risks: generally use the method. A condition where the theoretical or proven dications for specific contraceptives. You can print risks usually outweigh the advantages of using the these or load them on a memory stick, or ask for method: use of method not usually recommended the WHO book to be donated to your hospital by unless other more appropriate methods are not the national FP organization: http://whqlibdoc. A condition which represents an unacceptable health risk if the contraceptive method is used. For There also exists a WHO wheel, similar to the example, trusting condoms is a no. However, date/expected date of delivery (EDD), to check on eligibility. Order (Department of Reproductive perhaps she lives in an area with a maternal mor- tality ratio (MMR) of 1000/100,000 and is also a Health, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland; rhr- para 6. Her risk of dying if she has an unintended publications@who. Therefore, over 10 years if she employs 9789241547710_eng. Yes, there is a chance she is not quite honest about her behavior while her husband Without breastfeeding, bleeding can resume 3–4 was away, but denying her DMPA or an IUD while weeks post-partum, although such a very early a very early pregnancy can’t be completely excluded bleeding is rarely preceded by an ovulation. Few is likely to result in more misery than providing women want another pregnancy early. Placing an IUD when a pregnancy rebuild her mental, caloric, vitamin and mineral can already be clearly detected on vaginal examina- resilience and offspring tend to do poorer physically, tion (VE) is, however, dangerous and can result in intellectually and sometimes emotionally if the next sepsis. If a pregnancy can’t be excluded, COCs (or one is conceived within 2 years. These are good options, vincing indications that a cesarean scar will not de- because if, in a few weeks, it transpires that she is in velop its maximal strength in time if there is a new fact pregnant, removing the implant or stopping pregnancy within a year. The LAM rules are simple: COC is easier than removing DMPA. Studies have provide near exclusive, on-demand breastfeeding, shown that the use of a checklist (see Box 3) sig- and another contraceptive method must be used nificantly improves access to contraceptive services. The WHO is retreating from its day 5 of her bleeding if she says so, and even then it position that more or less exclusive breastfeeding for might be a threatened miscarriage. Overweight clients terone enanthate, Net-En), patch especially if gaining fast weight after first DMPA Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embo- dose because extra risk of gaining many more kg. LNG-IUD (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, older age, obes- not for use with cervical cancer (which is not the ity), diabetes with nephro-, retino- or neuropathy, same as an abnormal Pap smear), pelvic inflamma- severe thrombocytopenia, ≥35 years of age and tory disease (PID), pelvic tuberculosis, peritonitis, smoking, use of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibi- gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and as tors and tenofovir, use of most anticonvulsants or emergency contraception (EC). One can continue rifampicin, migraine with aura, major surgery with but not initiate LNG-IUD with cervical cancer, prolonged immobilization. Implant Progestogen-based contraceptives – progestogen-only pill probably higher failure rate with liver enzyme- (POP), progestogen ring (coming on the market) inducing drugs; this does not apply to LNG-IUD. Acute DVT/PE (not including varicose veins and All progestin-only contraceptives are okay with sickle cell superficial thrombophlebitis), current ischemic disease and thalassemia. One can breast cancer (not family history of), stroke, multi- continue but not initiate this method with: severe ple factor arterial cardiovascular disease (smoking, thrombocytopenia, cervical cancer, unexplained hypertension, diabetes, older age, obesity), use of vaginal bleeding, AIDS, severely distorted uterine ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, tenofovir, cavity or double cavity. In general wait until 4 use of most anticonvulsants (excluding lamo- weeks post-partum except when placing a Cu trigine) or rifampicin. IUD within 10 min (not much later) of placental delivery (see under Copper IUD). Chronic anemia Other progestogens – depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (sickle cell, thalassemia) might be a contraindica- (DMPA, Depo-Provera) and norethisterone enantate tion for a Cu IUD because length and intensity of (NET-EN) menstrual blood loss tends to increase. Nulliparity Acute DVT/PE (not including varicose veins and is not a contraindication. If a cervicitis is seen on superficial thrombophlebitis), current ischemic inspection before insertion exclude STI if realistic, heart disease, <4 weeks post-partum and <6 weeks or insert under good antibiotic cover [also treat when breastfeeding, antiphospholipid antibodies (and inspect) partner]. Sometimes there is a high surgical disease (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, older risk for a woman (cardiovascular or severe adhe- age, obesity), severe hypertension (diastolic ≥100, sions after abdominal operations and/or infections). If there are no good alternatives, COC/POP can be • Given birth in the last 5 weeks (or 6 weeks if started any day of the cycle even if a pregnancy can’t be the clients wants a Cu IUD) completely excluded and even if abstinence or condom use • Less than 6 months post-partum and on demand is unrealistic for the first week of COC/POP use. A pregnancy test (or days (or it is <6 days after estimated time of ultrasound or VE) can determine in 3–4 weeks whether ovulation if a Cu IUD is wanted) to continue or stop COC/POP. If in doubt • Never had sexual intercourse, or abstained since they should try to consult with you, because an her last menses/miscarriage/delivery unintended pregnancy is a major occurrence not • Used a reliable contraceptive method consist- only ‘one of those things’ and should be prevented ently and correctly, with a 14 days ‘grace period’ if at all possible.

Only sustained responses have been clearly associated with resolution of liver fibrosis and extra- hepatic manifestations order line super p-force oral jelly protein shakes erectile dysfunction, as well as with the prevention of further transmission super p-force oral jelly 160 mg free shipping men's health erectile dysfunction causes. When HCV RNA becomes detectable again after having been negative, it is referred to as a 458 Other Infections than HIV-1 relapse. The probability of a relapse is highest within the first months following com- pletion of treatment and decreases steadily afterwards. Therefore, the success of therapy is usually determined and evaluated 12–24 weeks after the end of treatment. Treatment indication Achieving SVR has been associated with an improved survival even in earlier fibro- sis stages (F2) suggesting benefits of HCV therapy beyond cure of HCV and preven- tion of further liver disease progression. Therefore, every person with co-infection should be considered for treatment when the benefits of therapy outweigh the risks including patients pre- or post-liver transplantation particularly in the light of better HCV treatment outcomes with the use of DAAs in these persons. Thus HIV coin- fection gives a high priority to anti-HCV treatment already at lower liver fibrosis stages (F0/F1). In case of the availability of a liver biopsy or FibroScan demonstrat- ing lack of or minimal liver fibrosis (F0-1), regardless of HCV GT, treatment can be deferred, however, in countries where no or only limited DAAs have become avail- able so far or where cost reimbursement issues still have not been clarified. In these cases, fibrosis assessment should be carried out every 12 months periodically to monitor for fibrosis progression. If chronic HCV and HIV infection are newly diagnosed at the same time and CD4 cell count is >500 cells/µl treatment of HCV in the presence of immediate HCV treat- ment indication ( F2 fibrosis) can be considered prior to ART initiation to avoid potential drug-drug interactions between ART and HCV DAAs. Treatment regimen The combination of sofosbuvir 400 mg QD and a weight-adjusted dose of ribavirin of 1000 (<75 kg) to 1200 (>75 kg) mg/day BID for 12 weeks has become the new gold standard therapy for all HCV GT2 persons, promising cure in >90%. Persons with cirrhosis can be treated for an extended duration of 16 weeks. The approval of further DAAs have offered the opportunity of interferon- and partially also ribavirin-free DAA combination regimens which because of significantly improved tolerability and higher HCV cure rates can now be considered the gold standard in HCV therapy. In particular, the combinations of sofosbuvir and simeprevir (GT1/4), a fixed-dose com- bination of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (GT1/4), sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (GT1/2/3/4) or a combination of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r and dasabuvir (GT1, GT4 without dasabu- vir) are recommended (see Table 2). Addition of ribavirin may be considered to reduce relapse rate and shorten treatment duration for some of the DAA combinations. Ribavirin should also be added to the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r and dasabuvir com- bination when treating GT1a and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r when treating GT4. Use of older, first generation HCV PIs (boceprevir and telaprevir, only indicated in GT1) is no longer recommended because of increased toxicities. Simeprevir can cause hyperbilirubinemia and skin reactions/photosensibility. Due to drug-drug interactions, in particular HIV and HCV PIs, careful checking for interactions is urgently recommended prior to starting HCV therapy, see www. During PEG- IFN+RBV therapy, ddI is contraindicated in persons with cirrhosis and should be avoided in persons with less severe liver disease. HIV and HBV/HCV Coinfections 459 Table 2: Interferon-free HCV treatment options in HCV/HIV coinfection (EACS 2015) HCV Treatment Regimen Treatment duration (weeks) and ribavirin (RBV) usage GT Non-cirrhotic Compensated Decompensated Cirrhotic Cirrhotics CTP Class B/C 1 & 4 SOF + SMP ± RBV 12 without RBV 12 with RBV or Not recommended 24 without RBV1 SOF/LDV ± RBV 12 without RBV 12 with RBV or 24 without RBV in cirrhotics or pre-/post-transplant1 SOF + DCV ± RBV 12 without RBV 12 with RBV or 24 without RBV in cirrhotics or pre-/post-transplant1 OBV/PTV/r + DSV 12 in GT1b Not recommended OBV/PTV/r + DSV + RBV 12 in GT1a 12 in GT1b Not recommended 24 in GT1a OBV/PTV/r + RBV 12 in GT4 24 in GT4 Not recommended 2 SOF + DCV ± RBV 12 without RBV 12 without RBV 12 weeks with RBV SOF + RBV 12 16–202 3 SOF + PEG-IFN/RBV Not recommended 12 in pts eligible Not recommended to pegylated IFN SOF + RBV 24 Not recommended SOF + DCV ± RBV3 12 without RBV 24 with RBV 5 SOF/LDV 12 without RBV 12 without RBV 6 In the absence of clinical data on DAAs in HCV GT6 infection persons should be treated similarly to HCV GT1 and 4 infection RBV ribavirin, SOF sofosbuvir, SMP simeprevir, DCV daclatasvir, LDV ledipasvir, OBV ombitasvir, PTV/r paritaprevir/ritonavir, DSV dasabuvir 1 Cirrhotic patients with negative predictors of response can be treated 24 weeks with ribavirin (negative predictors: treatment-experienced, platelet count < 75000/μl) 2 Possible extension up to 16 weeks in treatment-naïve cirrhotics or relapsers; up to 20 weeks in treatment-experienced cirrhotics 3 Based on expert opinion and preliminary data from studies in patients on pre-marketing expanded access programs References Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Di Martino V, et al. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. Hepatitis C seroconversions in HIV infection across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected? European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines Version 8, October 2015. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. Impaired hepatitis C virus-specific T cell responses and recurrent hepa- titis C virus in HIV coinfection. Injuries from needles contaminated with hepatitis C virus: how high is the risk of seroconversion for medical personnel really? Genetic variation in IL28B and treatment-induced clearance of hep- atitis C virus in HIV-positive patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C. J Infect Dis 2011, 203:595-601 NEAT – The European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT). Acute hep- atitis C in HIV-infected individuals: recommendations from the European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT) con- sensus conference. The management of HCV infected pregnant women and their children European paediatric HCV network. Clinical progression of hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Influence of hepatitis C virus infection on HIV-1 disease progression and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Rosenthal E, Pialoux G, Bernard N, Liver-related mortality in human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected patients between 1995 and 2003 in the French GERMIVIC Joint Study Group Network (MORTAVIC 2003 Study). Rapid fibrosis progression among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected adults. Delayed anti-HCV antibody response in HIV-positive men acutely infected with HCV. AIDS 2009;23:89-93 Trevino A, Rivas P, Herrero-Mendoza M, et al. Newly Diagnosed HIV-1 Individuals in Spain since Year 2000. Non- B Subtypes, and Hepatitis C and B Virus Co-infections. Treatment of acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-infected patients: a retrospec- tive analysis of eleven cases. HIV and HBV/HCV Coinfections 461 HIV and HBV coinfection Introduction The hepatitis B virus is one of the most common human pathogens worldwide. Up to 95% of all HIV+ patients have been infected with hepatitis B, and approximately 10–15% have chronic hepatitis B, with considerable variation among geographical regions and risk groups (Alter 2006, Konopnicki 2005). It is estimated that around 100,000 HIV+ patients in the US suffer from chronic hepatitis B. Due to implemen- tation of vaccination programs in many countries transmission rates decrease, especially in the younger population. Sexual transmission is the most frequent route of transmission. Transmission via the bloodstream is more likely than for HIV: following a needle stick injury contaminated with HBV-infected blood, the risk of infection is around 30% (HCV <2%; HIV approximately 0. Acute HBV infection leads to chronic hepatitis in 2-5% of immunocompetent adults, whereas HIV+ patients experience chronicity about five times more often. A possi- ble reason for this is the HIV-associated immunodeficiency, whereas virus-specific factors such as hepatitis B viral load and genotype do not contribute significantly (Bodsworth 1991). Hepatitis B and HIV share several features, although hepatitis B is a non-integrating, circular DNA virus (“closed circular supercoiled” DNA [cccDNA]). Hepatitis B is one of a few known non-retroviral viruses which uses reverse transcription as a part of its replication process.

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Systematic reviews We identified five systematic reviews (reported in six publications) on efficacy of dual 9 order super p-force oral jelly without prescription erectile dysfunction drugs don't work, 13-15 generic super p-force oral jelly 160 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction at age of 20, 79, 80 therapy with pegylated interferon. All of the systematic reviews included the same 48 two published trials (one evaluating dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and the 63 other pegylated interferon alfa-2b ). In both trials, dual therapy with pegylated interferon was compared to dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon or monotherapy with pegylated interferon. We excluded four of the systematic reviews because they did not assess comparative 9, 13-15, 79 efficacy of dual pegylated interferon regimens and are missing new, relevant trials. The fifth systematic review focused on efficacy of dual therapy with pegylated interferon in patients 79 with HCV genotype 4 infection and is reviewed for key question 3. Head-to-head trials Two head-to-head trials compared dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus 71, 72 pegylated interferon alfa-2b. Both were short-term (eight to twelve weeks) efficacy trials that only assessed end-of-treatment virologic responses. Results of the two trials cannot be directly compared or combined because of differences in study quality, patient populations, and interventions (Table 5). One trial (rated fair-quality), sponsored by the manufacturer of pegylated interferon alfa-2b, only included treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 and initially placed patients on four weeks of pegylated interferon monotherapy before 71 ribavirin was added for the last four weeks. The other trial, sponsored by the manufacturer of pegylated interferon alfa-2a, was rated poor quality (flaws include allocating consecutive patients to alternating therapy), did not restrict to genotype 1, initiated patients on dual therapy, and 72 included treatment-experienced patients (30% of enrolled population). In both trials, end-of- treatment virologic response was defined as >=2. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 16 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project In the fair-quality trial, there was no significant difference (p=0. In the poor-quality trial, there was also no difference in 12-week virologic response rates, though the trend was in the opposite direction (83% or 48/58 for pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus 67% or 39/58 for 72 pegylated interferon alfa-2b, p=0. In a subgroup analysis of treatment-naïve patients in this trial, the same trend was observed (90% vs. Biochemical, histological, and clinical outcomes were not reported in either trial. Head-to-head trials of dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a vs. It found no significant difference in rates of virologic response through eight weeks of dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus pegylated interferon alfa-2b (66% or 29/44 versus 50% or 22/44). Results of a large (expected enrollment 2,880), head-to-head trial of 48-week dual pegylated interferon regimens in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection (the IDEAL study) are not yet available, but expected 129 later in 2007. This trial is sponsored by the manufacturer of pegylated interferon alfa-2b. Active-controlled trials Dual therapy with pegylated interferon versus dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon Active-controlled trials of dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and pegylated interferon alfa-2b against a common comparator could provide indirect evidence on comparative effectiveness. We identified five trials comparing dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a 35, 44, 61, 73 plus ribavirin versus dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin or 48 dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin and 11 trials comparing dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin versus dual therapy with non-pegylated 34, 40, 43, 45, 46, 58, 59, 63, 68, 70, 74 73 interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. One trial was rated good-quality, 35, 46, 68 35 three trials poor-quality, and the remainder fair-quality. Sample sizes ranged from 21 to Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 17 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 63 1530 enrollees. Common methodological shortcomings observed in the trials were inadequate description of randomization and allocation concealment methods and open-label design. All trials of pegylated interferon alfa-2a evaluated a dose of 180 μg /kg once weekly. Seven trials of 43, 45, 46, 59, 63, 70, 74 pegylated interferon alfa-2b evaluated a dose of 1. Ribavirin doses varied in both sets of trials, ranging from 600 to 1600 mg daily. In one trial, patients randomized to dual 61 therapy with pegylated interferon and non-pegylated interferon also received amantadine. Two trials did not specify whether patients 35, 68 had previously been exposed to interferon therapy. The other trials evaluated only 46, 47 34 treatment-naïve patients. Three trials focused exclusively or primarily on patients with 40, 70, 74 HCV genotype 4 infection and three trials evaluated only patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The proportion of patients with HCV genotype 1 ranged from 44% to 78% in the other trials. All trials required patients to have liver biopsy findings consistent with HCV infection and at least mild inflammation or fibrosis for enrollment. Only one trial specifically included 77 43, 44, patients with normal transaminases. Three trials (all evaluating HIV co-infected patients) 68 did not use transaminase elevations as an eligibility criterion. In all other trials, transaminase elevation was required for enrollment. No trial included patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Rates of SVR ranged from 27% to 65% on dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a, and from 27% to 67% on dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b, with the exception of one 68 poor-quality, non-randomized trial of HIV co-infected patients that reported an SVR of 5% (1/20). Characteristics of trials comparing dual therapy with pegylated interferon to dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon Trial (quality) Interferon regimen Ribavirin Population characteristics daily dose Peginterferon alfa-2a vs. Only one trial reported effects on quality of 51 life. In pooled analysis, dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was superior to non-pegylated interferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b plus ribavirin (five trials, RR 2. There was a significant 35, 44, 61, 73 difference between estimates based on the subgroup of four trials (N=969) comparing dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a to dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa- 48 2a (RR 2. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 20 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Figure 2. Forest plot on sustained virologic response, dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b Review: Pegylated interferon Comparison: Dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a vs. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 21 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Figure 3. Forest plot on sustained virologic response, dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon Review: Pegylated interferon Comparison: Dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b vs. Some of the remaining heterogeneity in the two trials of pegylated interferon alfa-2a in patients without HIV co-infection may be related to the addition of amantadine to both treatment arms in 61 one of the trials. Estimates were stable after excluding poor-quality trials or trials evaluating only patients with genotype 1 or genotype 4 infection. Estimates were also stable after excluding results of patients randomized to lower-dose pegylated interferon alfa-2b from a trial that 63 evaluated lower (0.

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Combination therapy for type 2 diabetes: repaglinide plus rosiglitazone generic super p-force oral jelly 160 mg with amex what std causes erectile dysfunction. Stocker DJ purchase cheap super p-force oral jelly on-line erectile dysfunction doctor in jacksonville fl, Taylor AJ, Langley RW, Jezior MR, Vigersky RA. A randomized trial of the effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Rosiglitazone, but not glimepiride, improves myocardial diastolic function in association with reduction in oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients without overt heart disease. Effects of rosiglitazone and metformin treatment on apelin, visfatin, and ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Effect of rosiglitazone on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease: the assessment on the prevention of progression by rosiglitazone on atherosclerosis in diabetes patients with cardiovascular history trial. A diabetes outcome progression trial (ADOPT): an international multicenter study of the comparative efficacy of rosiglitazone, glyburide, and metformin in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT): baseline characteristics of Type 2 diabetic patients in North America and Europe. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes (RECORD): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis. Adding liraglutide to oral antidiabetic drug monotherapy: efficacy and weight benefits. Ragaglitazar improves glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic subjects: a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study with an open pioglitazone arm. Long-term efficacy and tolerability of add-on pioglitazone therapy to failing monotherapy compared with addition of gliclazide or metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Gastaldelli A, Ferrannini E, Miyazaki Y, Matsuda M, Mari A, DeFronzo RA. Thiazolidinediones improve beta-cell function in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of the effects of pioglitazone on glycemic control and dyslipidemia in oral antihyperglycemic medication-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kipnes MS, Krosnick A, Rendell MS, Egan JW, Mathisen AL, Schneider RL. Pioglitazone hydrochloride in combination with sulfonylurea therapy improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Metabolic effects of pioglitazone in combination with insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose disease is not adequately controlled with insulin therapy: Results of a six-month, randomized, double-blind, prospective, multicenter, parallel-group study. Honisett SY, Stojanovska L, Sudhir K, Kingwell BA, Dawood T, Komesaroff PA. Rosiglitazone lowers blood pressure and increases arterial compliance in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Raskin P, Rappaport EB, Cole ST, Yan Y, Patwardhan R, Freed MI. Rosiglitazone short- term monotherapy lowers fasting and post-prandial glucose in patients with type II diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone reduces clinical inflammatory responses in type 2 diabetes with coronary artery disease after coronary angioplasty. Rosiglitazone taken once daily provides effective glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycemic control with glyburide/metformin tablets in combination with rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind trial. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the effects of rosiglitazone on echocardiographic function and cardiac status in type 2 diabetic patients with New York Heart Association Functional Class I or II Heart Failure. Rosiglitazone improves myocardial glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Negro R, Mangieri T, Dazzi D, Pezzarossa A, Hassan H. Rosiglitazone effects on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in nondipper diabetic patients. Effect of rosiglitazone on restenosis after coronary stenting in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pioneer study: PPARgamma activation results in overall improvement of clinical and metabolic markers associated with insulin resistance independent of long-term glucose control. Effect of early addition of rosiglitazone to sulphonylurea therapy in older type 2 diabetes patients (>60 years): the Rosiglitazone Early vs. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial. Preventative effects of rosiglitazone on restenosis after coronary stent implantation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Davidson JA, Perez A, Zhang J, The Pioglitazone 343 Study G. Addition of pioglitazone to stable insulin therapy in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: results of a double- blind, multicentre, randomized study. A placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A randomized comparison of pioglitazone to inhibit restenosis after coronary stenting in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone reduces neointimal tissue proliferation after coronary stent implantation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an intravascular ultrasound scanning study. Effect of metformin plus roziglitazone compared with metformin alone on glycaemic control in well-controlled Type 2 diabetes. Effects of rosiglitazone added to submaximal doses of metformin compared with dose escalation of metformin in type 2 diabetes: the EMPIRE Study. Rosenstock J, Rood JA, Cobitz AR, Biswas N, Chou H, Garber A. Initial treatment with rosiglitazone/metformin fixed-dose combination therapy compared with monotherapy with either rosiglitazone or metformin in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Initial treatment with fixed-dose combination rosiglitazone/glimepiride in patients with previously untreated type 2 diabetes. McCluskey D, Touger MS, Melis R, Schleusener DS, McCluskey D. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study administering glimepiride to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with rosiglitazone monotherapy. DuetactÒ Product Information and Data Dossier: Submitted to the Drug Effectiveness Review Project; 2007.

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