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You’ll have references to metabolism at each point it comes up and you’ll be able to analyze its influences across different body systems buy cheap kamagra effervescent line erectile dysfunction in young men. Grouping Studies If you’re really lucky purchase kamagra effervescent pills in toronto impotence clinic, someone in your class (or maybe it’s even you) has already sug- gested forming that time-honored tradition — a study group. Meet with your group at least once a week to go over lecture notes and textbook readings. If it’s true that people only retain about 10 per- cent of what they hear or read, then it makes sense that your fellow group members will recall things that slipped immediately from your mind. Outlining What’s to Come As you read through a chapter of your textbook to prepare for the next lecture, pre- pare an outline of what you’re reading, leaving plenty of space between subheadings. Then, during the lecture, take your notes within the outline you’ve already created. Piecing together an incomplete puzzle shows you where the key gaps in your knowl- edge may be. Practice, Practice, Practice Flash cards, mnemonic drills, practice tests — be creative and practice, practice, practice! Sometimes instructors share tidbits about what they plan to emphasize, but some- times they don’t. In the end, if you’ve done the work and put in the time to study and practice with information outside of class, the exact structure and content of an exam shouldn’t make much difference. You may find that the answer to an exam question that stumps you is revealed — at least partially — in the phrasing of a subsequent question. Stay alert to these blessed little gifts even when you think that you already understand the whole anatomical process. You wouldn’t be the first stu- dent to change an answer after working your way through an exam. It’s hardly a missed opportunity — this is where rolling with the punches really pays off. Start your next practice sessions with those ques- tions, and stay alert for upcoming material that may trip you up in a similar way. Chapter 18 Ten (Plus One) Terrific Online Resources In This Chapter Scanning online reference books Exploring databases and virtual tours o matter how much you study or how many Latin and Greek roots you memorize, Nit’s inevitable that some aspects of anatomy and physiology will leave you dazed and confused. But if you study within reach of an Internet connection, you don’t have to stay that way for long. Simply surf over to one of the 11 sites covered in this chapter and start entering search terms. As with anything Internet-related, however, you have to be cautious about the accuracy of what you find. The site offers about 4 mil- lion “answers” based more on keyword searches than on any actual questions. Material is drawn from scores of brand-name content publishers as well as Answers. This delightful site is maintained by a Missouri community college professor who also happens to be coauthor of an anatomy and physiology textbook. Patton has been teaching the subject for more than two decades and has devel- oped a refreshingly gentle sense of humor along the way. His Web site is packed with study tips, downloadable PowerPoint slides, and guided tours of various anatomical systems. We’re talking about the venerable reference book that dates back to 1858 and is now online for quick and easy access. Included in the “virtual” Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body are more than 1,200 color illustrations and a subject index with 13,000 entries. If your textbook is missing critical illustrations, don’t worry; a quick keyword search on this Web site can reveal a number of relevant graphics for you to study. To access this feature, click the Education and Teaching Tools link on the organization’s home page; then select Ask the Expert. In addition to “flash” windows that drill down into various systems, GetBodySmart offers free tutorials and quizzes to explain complex physiological interactions. Sheffield readily acknowledges that his work will last “many years,” so perhaps the best is yet to come. As of this writing, the site consists mostly of dozens of quizzes of varying lengths and difficulty. Treat this site like your own personal flash card system and you’ll be head and shoulders above your fellow students. This site only covers the brain, skeleton, heart, and digestive tract, but its clear, concise three-dimensional representations of these organs and systems make it worth a look. To work through the multiple-choice practice questions, you need to download the Shockwave plug-in (if you don’t already have it), but that’s a small price to pay for such a useful site. Full-color images with blank labels give you the opportunity to figure out which part is what and why; then you can clear your labels and begin again as often as you like. Crimando lists every scrap of information a student needs to succeed in his classes (or any anatomy and physiology class), including extensive practice questions, lecture outlines, and quick summaries of class sessions. Crimando’s students, his site is an incredibly useful receptacle for information about how the body is organized. But that doesn’t begin to compare with what he has done pulling together resources from all over the Web in the Student Resources page we guide you to here. The site’s capabilities are somewhat limited, but it contains some good interactive anatomical practice areas and a couple of educational videos, too. See faucial isthmus peritoneal cavity, subserous fasciae, 102 os coxae, appendicular skeleton, 79 peritubular capillary bed, kidneys, 196 osmolarity 24 phagocytes, lymph nodes, 185 osmoreceptors, hypothalamus, 268 phagocytic cells, 52, 173 osmosis, molecule transport method, 24–25 phalanges (finger bones), 79 ossein, adult bone protein, 63 pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids), 135, 189 osseous (bone) tissue, connective tissue, 52 pharyngopalatine. No 2 24A 19:50 59 Gate closes 20 minutes before departure Gate is subject to change Посадка заканчивается за 20 минут до вылета Выход может быть изменен Gate / Выход Seat / Место 2 24A Electronic ticket 5552146462832 5552146462832 Посадка на реис заканчивается за 20 минут до времени вылета. Не забудьте, что в аэропорту вам предстоит проити контроль безопасности, а при международном полете — таможенные и пограничные формальности. При посадке вам необходимо предъявить обе части данного посадочного талона (распечатанного на принтере), а также паспорт и документы для въезда в страну назначения (транзита). No 2 24A 19:50 59 Gate closes 20 minutes before departure Gate is subject to change Посадка заканчивается за 20 минут до вылета Выход может быть изменен Gate / Выход Seat / Место 2 24A Electronic ticket 5552146462832 5552146462832 . As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The authors and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication. However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in medical sciences, neither the authors nor the publisher nor any other party who has been involved in the preparation or publication of this work warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete, and they disclaim all responsibility for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from use of the information contained in this work. Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources. For example and in particular, readers are advised to check the prod- uct information sheet included in the package of each drug they plan to administer to be certain that the information contained in this work is accurate and that changes have not been made in the recommended dose or in the contraindications for administration. This recommendation is of particular importance in connection with new or infrequently used drugs. Except as per- mitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark.

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Online shop- tion can clearly detect the difference between these two ping habits might differ drastically from catalogue sales or colors 100 mg kamagra effervescent otc erectile dysfunction gnc. These trends are just beginning to be to mark school buses and many traffic signs order 100mg kamagra effervescent with amex erectile dysfunction remedies fruits. Jane Spear Control group Further Reading In an experiment that focuses on the effects of a Asker, Jennifer L. In such an experiment, in Conversion reaction which there are two groups of subjects, the group that is A psychological disorder characterized by physical exposed to the condition or factor is called the experi- symptoms for which no physiological cause can be mental group. For example, in a hypothetical study of the influence of the presence This condition was first described by Sigmund of loud music on the test performances of children, the Freud as conversion hysteria because it involved the control group would consist of the group of children not conversion of a repressed emotional problem to a physi- exposed to the loud music during the test. Today, conversion reaction is classified as scores would be compared with the experimental group, a somatoform disorder in the American Psychiatric As- the group of children who were exposed to loud music sociation’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Men- during the test. Conversion reaction is a very rare condition, ac- counting for about 2 percent of all psychiatric diag- Further Reading noses, and usually first appears during adolescence or Atkinson, Rita L. San early adulthood, generally when an individual is under Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987. Another source of “secondary gain” is the attraction of attention, sympathy, and sup- port that the patient may need but is unable to obtain in Convergent thinking other ways. The ability to narrow the number of possible solu- tions to a problem by applying logic and knowl- Some of the most common symptoms of conversion edge. Other physical com- ford, a psychologist well-known for his research on cre- plaints include tremors, abdominal pain, and speech im- ativity. Guilford posited that a prime component of cre- pairments such as aphonia, the inability to speak above ativity is divergent thinking, the capacity to arrive at a whisper. Sometimes a person will experience anesthe- unique and original solutions and the tendency to consid- sia in only one part of the body, such as “glove anesthe- er problems in terms of multiple solutions rather than sia,” which affects the hand only up to the wrist, al- just one. Convergent thinking, which narrows all options though such a problem could have no physiological ori- to one solution, corresponds closely to the types of tasks gin since there is no cut-off point between the nerves of usually called for in school and on standardized multi- the hand and arm. In contrast, creativity tests designed to docrine glands or autonomic nervous systems. If the assess divergent thinking often ask how many different symptoms of a conversion disorder are prolonged, they answers or solutions a person can think of to a specific may produce physiological damage by interrupting the question or problem. Some researchers have claimed that normal functioning of the body, and psychological creative achievement actually involves both divergent damage by inducing excessive dependence on family and convergent thinking—divergent thinking to generate members and other persons. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psy- Further Reading chological Works of Sigmund Freud. There are several different types of correlations; the most commonly used is called the Pear- A technique used to measure the likelihood of two son Product-Moment Correlation. See also Research methodology; Scientific method Psychologists are often interested in deciding whether two behaviors tend to occur together. Sometimes two measurements are associated so that when the value of one increases, so does the other— Cortex a positive correlation. On the other hand, one value may increase systematically as the other decreases—a nega- See Neocortex tive correlation. For example, the number of correct answers on a stu- dent’s test is generally positively related to the number of hours spent studying. Students who produce more correct Counseling psychology answers have spent more hours studying; similarly, fewer correct answers occur with fewer hours spent studying. An area of psychology which focuses on nurturing the development potential of relatively healthy in- One could also see whether the number of wrong dividuals in all areas of their lives. This pat- tern is likely to produce a negative correlation: a greater While the counseling psychologist may diagnose, number of wrong answers is associated with less study assess, and treat adjustment difficulties, they often ad- time. That is, the value of one variable increases (wrong dress problems which are more moderate than those en- answers) as the other decreases (hours spent studying). Clients of coun- Correlations allow an assessment of whether two seling psychologists are people who need help coping variables are systematically related within a group of in- with the stresses of everyday life, and the focus is on dividuals. A single person may show behavior that dif- strengthening their existing resources rather than over- fers from most of the rest of the group. The given student might study for many hours and still not counseling psychologist may use a number of tools in perform well on a test. This does not mean that study treating clients, including psychotherapy,workshops in time and test grades are not related; it only means that such areas as assertiveness training or communications exceptions exist for individuals, even if the rest of the skills, and psychological assessments. In contrast to a clinical psychother- ject do better because of their interest; they also study apist, the counseling psychologist may intervene in the more because they like the material. One of the psychotherapy, the relationship between counselor and limitations of the correlational method is that although client may extend to situations outside the office setting. It has traditionally followed an educational rather ment associated with both greater study time and higher than a medical model, considering those it helps as test scores. Its educational context is also variables (increase in study time and increase in grades), evident in its emphasis on developmental models derived psychologists refer to this as the third variable problem. A focus on adult quarterly, and the Journal of Counseling Psychology, development is helpful to many types of clients, such as which appears bimonthly. Counseling psychology, parallel- Further Reading ing a growing trend among health care providers, also Brammer, Lawrence M. Therapeutic Psychology: Fundamen- advocates preventive as well remedial approaches to tals of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Carl Rogers,whose methods were more readily under- stood and adapted by counselors than those of Sigmund Freud, had a lasting influence on the techniques of voca- tional counseling and counseling psychology, which Counterconditioning focus more on the process than on the outcome of the An aspect of behavior therapy that involves weak- counseling relationship. Two other theoretical models ening or eliminating an undesired response by in- that have been especially influential are decision-making troducing and strengthening a second response theory and the social influence model. Decision-making is related to counsel- which is employed to reduce or eliminate fear of a par- ing psychology’s overall emphasis on problem solving. An early example of systematic desensitization was an experiment that is also Social influence theory, currently one of the prevail- the first recorded use of behavior therapy with a child. Jones countered the child’s negative re- that contribute to the counselor’s social influence; the sponse to rabbits with a positive one by exposing him to ways in which social influence can be maximized; and a caged rabbit while he sat some distance away, eating social influence in relation to such factors as race, gen- one of his favorite foods. Over the years, the fields of comfortable with the rabbit as the cage was gradually counseling psychology and psychotherapy have begun to moved closer, until he was finally able to pet it and play overlap as clinical psychologists have concentrated more with it without experiencing any fear. In the 1950s South African psychiatrist Joseph There has also been a growing overlap between counsel- Wolpe (1915- ) pioneered a prototype for systematic de- ing and social work, as social workers have moved in the sensitization as it is generally practiced today. Thus, Cover’s experiment, Wolpe’s technique involved gradual- there has been an overlap between these professions. However, instead of countering the fear with a plea- Most counselor training programs are offered by surable stimulus such as food, Wolpe countered it with colleges of education rather than psychology depart- deliberately induced feelings of relaxation. As the establishment of credentials has become client imagine a variety of frightening experiences and more and more important (particularly with regard to then rank them in order of intensity. The client was then payments by insurance companies), counseling psychol- trained in deep muscle relaxation and instructed to prac- ogy programs are offering (and requiring) an increased tice it as he pictured the experiences he had described, amount of training in basic psychology, which can in- progressing gradually from the least to the most frighten- clude rigorous internship programs. Today systemic desensitization of the type pioneered ogy has its own division, Division 17, of the American by Wolpe is widely used with both adults and children. For example, when treating exhibitionists, it is used to overcome a wide variety of fears, such as fear would be difficult to justify encouraging people to ex- of certain animals or fear of the dark.

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Some healthcare providers are also hesitant about administering pain medica- tion for some of the same reasons patients refuse to take the drug generic 100 mg kamagra effervescent with amex erectile dysfunction treatments herbal. Furthermore order kamagra effervescent no prescription erectile dysfunction causes in young males, healthcare providers might be skeptical that the patient is actually in pain since pain is subjective and difficult to measure in the clinical setting. Many studies have demonstrated that women, the elderly, children, and those addicted to illegal drugs are at greater risk for being undertreated for acute pain. These studies indicate that some healthcare providers believe females react emo- tionally and pain is not as severe as reported. Others believe the elderly and chil- dren do not feel pain as acutely as other patients. And many healthcare providers believe addicts are simply seeking drugs to forego withdrawal symptoms even when it is clear that the addict is suffering pain from an acute injury or illness. The physical sensation of pain occurs when nerve endings are stimulated causing it to send an impulse along the nerve pathways to the brain, which transmits a pain response. The psychological component is a person’s emotional response to pain based on a person’s pain threshold. The pain threshold is the level of nerve-ending stimulation that causes the person to have the feeling of unbearable pain. However, the point beyond which pain becomes unbearable (pain tolerance) varies widely among individuals. Pain tolerance is also different for the same person depending on the circumstance in which sensation is detected. For exam- ple, a toothache might hurt more when you’re home than at work where you have a lot of distractions from the pain. The Gate Control Theory The gate control theory is an attempt to describe the mechanism of pain trans- mission. The dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains a gate mechanism that alters the transmission of painful sensations from peripheral nerve fiber to the thala- mus and cortex of the brain. The gate is closed by large diameter, low-threshold afferent fibers and is opened by small diameter, high-threshold afferent fibers. In addition to these two sets of fibers, the gate is also influenced by descending control inhibition from the brain to close the gate. When the patient experiences slower-acting painful stimuli, the large-diameter fibers are stimulated. Healthcare providers describe pain in terms of intensity, duration, frequency, and type of pain. Acute pain is the presence of severe discomfort or an uncomfortable sen- sation that has a sudden onset and subsides with treatment. For example, a fractured bone causes acute pain since the uncomfortable sensation occurs suddenly when the bone is broken and subsides when the bone is immobi- lized in a cast. Pain associated with myocardial infarction (heart attack), appendicitis, and kidney stones are also examples of acute pain. Chronic pain is a persistent or recurring pain that continues for six months or more. This is the pain from cancer and rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic conditions. Visceral pain is the dull and aching pain caused by stimulating nerve end- ings in smooth muscle or sympathetically innervated organs. Somatic pain is pain occurring from skeletal muscles, fascia, ligaments, ves- sels and joint. Neuropathic pain is a burning, shooting, and sometimes tingling pain that is caused by peripheral nerve injury. Neuropathic pain is treated with a combination of medications such as anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepres- sants, and opioid analgesics. Psychogenic pain is pain caused by psychiatric illness or psychosocial stimuli such as anxiety, depression, and fear. There are a number of variations of this pain scale including the Face Rating Scale and the Color Scale. The face rating scale uses expressions of car- toon faces to assess pain while the color scale uses colors ranging from blue to red where blue is freedom from pain and red is the most severe pain. These are onset, duration, frequency, what started the pain (precipitating cause), and what relieves the pain. The patient is asked to keep a timed record of the pain experience to include when the pain starts, what starts it, how bad it is, what relieves the pain, and any other factors that may explain how the patient is responding to the pain. This record can help the healthcare provider and the patient plan effective pain management. The pain management plan contains both pharmacological and nonpharma- cological strategies for managing the patient’s pain. These include massage, imagery, music, distraction, humor, acupuncture, chiropractic interventions, hypnosis, herbal therapies, ther- apeutic touch, and transcutaneous electronerve stimulation. Pharmacologic Management of Pain Pharmacologic management of pain involves administering pain medication to relieve the patient’s pain. Non-narcotic analgesics are used to treat headaches, menstrual pain (dysmenor- rheal), pain from inflammation, minor abrasions, muscular aches and pain, and mild-to-moderate arthritis. Narcotic analgesics are also used to suppress coughing by acting on the respiratory and cough cen- ters in the medulla of the brain stem. All relieve pain and all, except meperidine (Demerol), have an antitussive (cough suppression) and antidiar- rheal effect. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, these agents have both agonist and antagonist effects on the opioid receptors. Commonly used narcotic agonist-antagonists are Pentazocine (Talwin), Butorphanol tartrate (Stadol), duprenorphine (Buprenex), and nalbuphine hydrochloride (Nubain). They have a higher affinity to the opiate receptor site than the narcotic analgesic and block the narcotic analgesic from binding to the opiate receptor site. Naloxone (Narcan) is a narcotic antagonist and can be used to determine if an unconscious patient has used an opioid narcotic drug. If the patient wakes up after Narcan is administered intravenously, the patient is likely to have ingested or injected an opioid narcotic. Summary Pain is sensed when a nerve ending is stimulated sending an impulse along the neural pathway to the brain that interprets the impulse as pain. Pain is assessed in a patient by asking the patient to describe the intensity of the pain on a pain scale—the higher the value, the more severe the pain. Besides intensity, pain is assessed according to onset, duration, frequency, what started the pain (precipi- tating cause), and what relieves the pain. There are six classifications of pain: acute pain, chronic pain, visceral pain, somatic pain, neuropathic pain, and psychogenic pain.

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The study of consciousness is also important to the fundamental psychological question regarding the presence of free will kamagra effervescent 100mg erectile dysfunction and alcohol. Although we may understand and believe that some of our behaviors are caused by forces that are outside our awareness (i order discount kamagra effervescent online erectile dysfunction medication risks. To discover that we, or even someone else, has engaged in a complex behavior, such as driving in a car and causing severe harm to others, without being at all conscious of one’s actions, is so unusual as to be shocking. And yet psychologists are increasingly certain that a great deal of our behavior is caused by processes of which we are unaware and over which we [7] have little or no control (Libet, 1999; Wegner, 2003). Our experience of consciousness is functional because we use it to guide and control our behavior, and to think logically about problems (DeWall, Baumeister, & Masicampo, [8] 2008). Consciousness allows us to plan activities and to monitor our progress toward the goals Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. And consciousness is fundamental to our sense of morality—we believe that we have the free will to perform moral actions while avoiding immoral behaviors. But in some cases consciousness may become aversive, for instance when we become aware that we are not living up to our own goals or expectations, or when we believe that other people perceive us negatively. In these cases we may engage in behaviors that help us escape from consciousness, for example through the use of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs (Baumeister, [9] 1998). Because the brain varies in its current level and type of activity, consciousness is transitory. If we drink too much coffee or beer, the caffeine or alcohol influences the activity in our brain, and our consciousness may change. When we are anesthetized before an operation or experience a concussion after a knock on the head, we may lose consciousness entirely as a result of changes in brain activity. We also lose consciousness when we sleep, and it is with this altered state of consciousness that we begin our chapter. Draw a graphic showing the usual phases of sleep during a normal night and notate the characteristics of each phase. Outline and explain the similarities and differences among the different theories of dreaming. The lives of all organisms, including humans, are influenced by regularly occurring cycles of behaviors known as biological rhythms. One important biological rhythm is the annual cycle that guides the migration of birds and the hibernation of bears. Women also experience a 28-day cycle that guides their fertility and menstruation. But perhaps the strongest and most important biorhythm is the daily circadian rhythm (from the Latin circa, meaning “about‖ or “approximately,‖ and dian, meaning “daily‖) that guides the daily waking and sleeping cycle in many animals. Many biological rhythms are coordinated by changes in the level and duration of ambient light, for instance, as winter turns into summer and as night turns into day. In some animals, such as birds, the pineal gland in the brain is directly sensitive to light and its activation influences behavior, such as mating and annual migrations. The ganglion cells in the retina send signals to a brain area above the thalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is the body’s primary circadian “pacemaker. In response, the pineal gland secretes melatonin, a powerful hormone that facilitates the onset of sleep. Research Focus: Circadian Rhythms Influence the Use of Stereotypes in Social Judgments The circadian rhythm influences our energy levels such that we have more energy at some times of day than others. To test this hypothesis, he asked 189 research participants to consider cases of alleged misbehavior by other college students and to judge the probability of the accused students‘ guilt. The accused students were identified as members of particular social groups, and they were accused of committing offenses that were consistent with stereotypes of these groups. One case involved a student athlete accused of cheating on an exam, one case involved a Hispanic student who allegedly physically attacked his roommate, and a third case involved an African American student who had been accused of selling illegal drugs. Each of these offenses had been judged via pretesting in the same student population to be stereotypically (although, of course, unfairly) associated with each social group. The research participants were also provided with some specific evidence about the case that made it ambiguous whether the person had actually committed the crime, and then asked to indicate the likelihood of the student‘s guilt on an 11-point scale (0 = extremely unlikely to 10 = extremely likely). Participants also completed a measure designed to assess their circadian rhythms—whether they were more active and alert in the morning (Morning types) or in the evening (Evening types). The participants were then tested at experimental sessions held either in the morning (9 a. Morning people used their stereotypes more when they were tested in the evening, and evening people used their stereotypes more when they were tested in the morning. Sleep researchers have found that sleeping people undergo a fairly consistent pattern of sleep stages, each lasting about 90 minutes. During this sleep stage our muscles shut down, and this is probably a good thing as it protects us from hurting ourselves or trying to act out the scenes that are playing in our dreams. Each of the sleep stages has its own distinct pattern of brain [4] activity (Dement & Kleitman, 1957). When we are awake, our brain activity is characterized by the presence of very fast beta waves. When we first begin to fall asleep, the waves get longer (alpha waves), and as we move into stage N1 sleep, which is characterized by the experience of drowsiness, the brain begins to produce even slower theta waves. During stage N1 sleep, some muscle tone is lost, as well as most awareness of the environment. Some people may experience sudden jerks or twitches and even vivid hallucinations during this initial stage of sleep. Normally, if we are allowed to keep sleeping, we will move from stage N1 to stage N2 sleep. During stage N2, muscular activity is further decreased and conscious awareness of the environment is lost. This stage typically represents about half of the total sleep time in normal adults. Stage N2 sleep is characterized by theta waves interspersed with bursts of rapid brain activity known as sleep spindles. Stage N3, also known as slow wave sleep, is the deepest level of sleep, characterized by an increased proportion of very slow delta waves. This is the stage in which most sleep abnormalities, such as sleepwalking, sleeptalking, nightmares, and bed-wetting occur. Some skeletal muscle tone remains, making it possible for affected individuals to rise from their beds and engage in sometimes very complex behaviors, but consciousness is distant. If smoke enters the room or if we hear the cry of a baby we are likely to react, even though we are sound asleep. These occurrences again demonstrate the extent to which we process information outside consciousness. Eventually, as the sleep cycle finishes, the brain resumes its faster alpha and beta waves and we awake, normally refreshed.

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